Improvement of dysbiosis through microbiome therapeutics is an exciting new frontier for medical innovation. The area of research that is best understood at present is the important role the microbiome plays in preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Dysbiosis secondary to antibiotic exposure leads to vulnerability to CDI with recurrent disease occurring in a significant subset of patients. Emerging data also support a key role of dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), coeliac disease, and colon cancer. In fact, the role of the microbiome is now perceived to be so influential to human health that a multitude of other disorders are being explored such as allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and liver disease. Finally, recognition of a potential connection of dysbiosis through the gut-brain microbiome axis has led to interest in assessing the potential role of microbiome therapeutics in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Other areas of discovery in microbiome research include women’s health (bacterial vaginosis), oral medicine (dental carries), pulmonary (cystic fibrosis) and dermatology (acne).